On Teaching Mythology with Rick Riordan’s Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief

I used this book, along with Tales of the Greek Heroes by Roger Lancelyn Green, to teach mythology to a class of sixth graders during the summer. Working our way through the myths of Hellenic mythology, the kids remained very excited throughout the earlier discussions because of my use of multiple media depictions during the lessons, and their anticipation of the book based upon the excitement of those classmates that had seen the movie previously.

Once we had finished reading through the various myths that are referenced to throughout the novel, I purposefully decided to show them the movie, The Lightning Thief, before reading the book. Once I had done so, I was able to read the book, either orally as a class, or by using the audio book while they read along. They remained engaged throughout the readings, and, as a trick, I played muted video clips from the adaptation, or other movies set in mythology, which depicted the events we were reading that day on a loop. The students that I found were watching the film instead of reading along with the class would then be the ones subject to the critical reading questions that I would ask, which quickly taught them to keep their nose in their books. While doing so, I would also walk around the classroom with Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Ultimate Guide or The Percy Jackson and the Olympians: Lightning Thief: The Graphic Novel to show them characters involved in the scene, especially those that were deleted from the movie. As I said, I had determined previously that I would show them the movie before reading the book, breaking the cardinal rule of film adaptations, because this allowed us to have a group discussion of the book, the film, and the graphic novel where they thought critically about the variations of the different media forms, and allowed us to also spend time discussing the process of adapting books into movies.

The class, which was made up of students from low-income urban households, was part of a program organized by Pennsylvania’s Workforce Investment Act Youth Program and the Erie CareerLink. I thoroughly enjoyed the class, and once it was over I thought that they should be rewarded. I have found that the students do not read often at home because their parents either work shifts that do not allow them to spend time together as a family, or that their parents cannot read themselves. Since the kids had become so excited by their experiences with Greek mythology and Percy Jackson, and I could not give them the school districts books, I gave them each a book from my own personal collection. The students were humbled by the fact that I gave them each a book that I had read previously, along with an award certificate for what I termed “The New Old Book Award,” which I have adopted from my tenure at Virginia Tech, where each professor in the Classical Studies department would give one of the graduating seniors a book, into my classroom. Since I had given each student a book, I decided to give the class’ best student a box set of the Percy Jackson and the Olympians Boxed Set.

Moving Away From the Fast Food Model of Education

It is commonly accepted that the educational system in America is broken, but the debate continues as far as how we should address reforming our educational system. High school dropout rates are increasing, while the value of a college education is decreasing. The educational system, established to develop students that can transition into Industrial Age careers, has become inadequate in its role to produce citizens capable of utilizing and fulfilling the needs of the Information Age. Among thirty developed countries, Americans education levels have slipped to twenty-fifth in math and twenty-first in science, according to PISA.

Not only have our schools fallen behind those of other developed nations, but they have also shown major gaps in the extremes that our educational system fosters. The United States performs at above average levels of students qualified as “top performers” in math and science, but also has a comparatively large portion of poor performers, at 24.4%. In an attempt to rectify this crisis, 87% of all US schools practice ability grouping for some, or all, subjects. Programs like “No Child Left Behind” have attempted to promote charter schools in order to give children a better education than they would receive in a traditional public school setting. However, the greatest threat facing our students is not what type of school that they attend, but rather, their socio-economical background. In fact, once socio-economic factors are accounted for, public and private schools show no performance differences. While this occurs, businesses, which have a large impact on school curriculums compared to foreign schools, have stressed the need to further math and science programs, while administrators cut art and music programs their budgets. Our educational system has shown that we try to make students conform to our expectations, as opposed to cultivating their natural talents and abilities. In an attempt to produce well-rounded students and citizens, we have lost the creative edge that cultivates the advancement of societies.

As Sir Ken Robinson argues in his presentation to the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, an education revolution is needed in order to reform the American school system. However, while the debate continues in the political spectrum regarding how to improve the education of our children, very little is done to improve the situation temporarily. The American economy is shedding hundreds of no qualification jobs every day, while teacher and student standards continue to rise, but the rate at which the economy is getting rid of low skill jobs means that we have to raise our game. Meanwhile, our society seeks a quick fix solution, such as charter schools, but the true effect of charter schools in the US has been to lower student achievement, because more schools have gotten worse results than better results. Large structural changes to the school systems have been unsuccessful at producing the education for our children that our society desires.

The question then arises, what does work to fix education? The subsequent proposal has often been to increase teacher qualification standards, or to release those teachers that are deemed the most inadequate. However, the RSA & BBC have found that our increased teacher standards only influence the students’ scores by 1/400 of a grade. The result has been that we are pursuing policies that are not likely to produce the desired scale. The goal of our educational institutions should be to help every single teacher, the ones already hired within our schools, not on professional development that give them new facts, but a focus on professional learning about practice. Changing practice is hard, because it is changing habits. As an educational institution, we have a lot to learn from Weight Watchers, because nobody needs to know what they need to do to lose weight when it is something as simple as “eat less and exercise more.” Everyone knows that, but what is difficult is changing habits. We need new models of professional development, and new kinds of teacher learning, that are relentlessly focused on improving what happens everyday inside of the classrooms. If we do that, then unprecedented achievements in education is possible.

The old paradigm that if you worked hard, went to school, and worked towards a college degree, a job would be awaiting you is no longer true. The ideology within the development of the public education system enabled assumptions about social structure and capacity that there are two types of people: academic and non-academic. The Industrial Age, taking advantage of the Enlightenment’s intellectual model of the mind, was able to process these students into society as middle or working class citizens. However, as the outsourcing of our “blue collar” jobs continues, our education system has not been as quick to evolve to the current economical and technological situation.

Standardized tests have sought to improve science and math scores, which are the subjects that have the most direct impact on a country’s future economy. However, today’s math curriculum is teaching students to expect, and excel at, paint-by-numbers class work, robbing kids of a skill more important than solving problems: formulating them. The current system of science and math education creates impatience with irresolution, by giving students a word problem where they have all of the numbers and information needed, and they subsequently only need to plug those numbers into the correct positions within a mathematical formula. The textbooks are written in such a way that the conversation serves the math, instead of the math being capable of serving the conversation. Albert Einstein said, “the formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill,” yet in the US we simply give problems to students, instead of involving them in the formulation of the problem. Teachers then must create ways, such as Dan Meyer demonstrates, that prompt students to use mathematical reasoning and problem solving techniques to formulate their own sub-steps and mathematical problem.

While our textbooks and styles of teaching must begin to adjust to society’s educational needs, the elder generations need to recognize one quintessential fact: our children are living in the most intensely stimulating period in the history of the earth. They are besieged by information from computers, iPhones, television, and are condemned in the classroom for being distracted by a curriculum that does not properly engage their minds given the revolution in time that has occurred within the past generation. The technological revolution that occurred during the computer evolution of the 1990s and 2000s has significantly altered the pace of life between our current society and the generation that we are attempting to educate. In America, a child drops out of school every nine seconds. This statistic is worse for those in minority backgrounds, as well as for boys compared to girls. There is currently a disaster recipe developing among boys in America, where studies have shown that by the time a male reaches the age of 21, he has spent ten thousand hours playing video games alone. Not only does this mean that they have not properly developed the social skills required to adjust to the society around them, but they also live in a world which they create. Their brains are being digitally rewired, which means they will never fit in a traditional analog classroom, where they find themselves bored because they are unable to control anything within their passive environment. While traditionalists suggest that we must go back to the roots of the educational curriculum of reading, writing, and arithmetic, this will only continue the disastrous path for adolescent males, who need to be placed in a situation where they are controlling something. Another purpose of education has been to take children, who are born with present hedonistic mindsets, and transform them into future oriented citizens. However, we are underestimating the role of technology in rewiring our children’s brains to be about the second, where waiting is a waste of time, and preventing the next generation from becoming future oriented. Adults are unable to realize that kids are very different than they were, and it is because of this revolution in time.

The educational system is becoming inadequate, therefore, on two fronts: differences in pace of life as well as the economy from which the system was developed and created in the image of. It is for these reasons that I believe we must begin to transition to the Whole Education system. The Whole Education aims to enable the necessary changes needed in education policy that will cultivate the minds of our next generation to meet the demands of a fast changing work place that requires independent thinking, creativity, employability, and collaboration. We need to begin to equip students with the skills and personal qualities that they need to handle the major transitions that they endure throughout life, so that they no longer need to educated on how to learn when they pursue a college education, or have to be taught how to learn and think for themselves once they join the workforce. While doing so, children need to be developed as an individual, with a curriculum that enables every young person to achieve their own potential, rather than produce students from a “fast food” or assembly line model, where conformity and standardization are promoted, at the cost of our students’ creativity and divergent thinking ability. Students also need to learn to fail while in school so that they are taught the social and emotional competencies needed to collaborate and forge strong constructive relationships with others, including self-awareness, empathy, resilience, self-respect, persistence, and self-discipline. Young people should learn in an atmosphere that is relevant and engaging, not passive, and should be encouraged to work collaboratively to stretch themselves and work with others, and develop the ability to question and present their arguments, findings, and knowledge in a coherent and literate manner. In order for such an educational revolution to occur, parents and administration heads need to have more trust placed in the teachers who are best positioned to design a learning process that raises attainment and encourages the best from each young person, while understanding the requirements of the young people they teach.

The Whole Education equips students to think for themselves and makes the best of their talents, by building the belief that what a person does, and how much effort they invest, can and will produce positive results and rewards. Once students are shown that their contribution matters, they will be more likely to get involved in their community and become active citizens. Further, each student needs to take responsibility for their own future, but with the support and commitment of parents, the school, and the greater community, which may require the support of local support services and schools that can act as catalysts in this process by being accessible and operating without boundaries.

The adaptation of these techniques can begin in a single classroom, by individual teachers, who are ambitious and committed to their students’ education while the educational system in place begins to undergo a restructuring program necessary to fulfill the needs of our young people. These implementations are not meant to eliminate preexisting standards regarding what students should learn, but rather offer alternative ways to apply and supplement the existing education that is offered. As previously documented, the ability to make the learning of mathematics and science into an active learning environment, where math is able to fulfill the needs of a conversation, equating the skills learned to real-life situations, will provoke interest and improve, not only their capabilities to understand the formula, but also enable them to have the capacity to recall those abilities to be successful in the future. The social sciences also need to adapt in order to show students how the humanities are always evolving and progressing. Programs, such as Dream Catcher, allow children to capture children’s dreams by recording their creative play and imaginary worlds, opening up powerful channels of shared communication and learning with parents, other children, and grade school professionals through a Dream Blog, fostering creative ideas through art and literature. The redesign of history textbooks to demonstrate how social changes were controversial, that history is not black and white, while implementing historical fiction, under the pretext that historical inaccuracies and artistic license is accounted for, to enable the readers to imagine themselves in that time, is a necessary advancement, and a tool that has been used since antiquity beginning with the use of Homer. Literature classes would introduce blogging, which is already accepted as having affected the journalism media, as a way of enhancing writing abilities, while also utilizing personalized class wikis for collaborative efforts within the student body, as a supplement to the study of world literature. Accessible schools and teachers should also embrace social media and networking, by utilizing them to create openness through the system, while safely introducing children to these networks.

The educational system needs to be transformed to fit the requirements of the 21st century, and now is the time to act to ensure that we give our children the bright futures that we promise is awaiting them once their formal education is fulfilled.

Regulus and Classical Reception in Robin Hobb’s “The Triumph”

“Classical Reception” encompasses all work concerned with postclassical material, including history of scholarship; history of the book, film and media studies; performance history; translation studies;  response and personal voice criticism; postcolonial studies; medieval and Neo-Latin; and much else besides.  Therefore, reception has helped to challenge the traditional idea of what “classics” is.  It is not merely a matter of looking at what happened to classics after what we like to now call “late antiquity,” but of contesting the idea that classics is something fixed, with predefined boundaries, and whose nature we can understand on its own terms.  Reception allows for classics to evolve, involving the active participation of readers in a two way process, in which the past and present are in dialogue with one another.

Robin Hobb’s “The Triumph”, enables us to transcend time to visit the ancient city of Carthage in the year 251 BC.  Hobb’s story gives us a perspective of Marcus Atilius Regulus’ final dying days, and the events that led to his gruesome death.  Regulus appears in many sources because of his extraordinary story, and the use of his life story as an example of Roman virtue and honor. Regulus, consul 267 and 256 BC., invaded Africa during the First Punic War, and after winning an initial battle on Carthaginian soil, he entered into negotiations for peace with the city leaders. However, deemed too harsh by the Punic leaders, talks broke down, and the war was continued. In the ensuing battle, his forces were routed, and he was held captive by the Carthaginians. Released to Rome ca. 250 BC. to negotiate a peace, or at least a trade of prisoners of war, Regulus, however, goaded the Roman Senate to continue the war, and returned to Carthage, as he had promised, to be tortured. While Rome later did negotiate a trade of prisoners with the Carthaginians around 247 BC., the exemplum of Regulus was used throughout the remainder of Roman history, and later in the western world.  While Robin Hobb strays from the classical sources a few times throughout her depiction of Regulus, the true debate should lie in her ability to engage the reader into the classical world, and her ability to imitate the the past versus seeking the construction of the-past-as-it-really-was-in-itself.

wl114 Hobb details several accounts of Regulus, but the true importance to her writing is her focus on accounts that many modern historians have attempted to deem as myths and falsifications of the true historical account by ancient historians.  Those specific accounts being Regulus’ battle against a serpent while in Africa, his return to Rome to negotiate a peace, and his torture upon returning to Carthage.  For each of these specific events, I will detail Robin Hobbs portrayal of Regulus, countered against the historical tradition of the account, while attempting to display the importance of Regulus’ story as it can be applied to the evolution of reception studies.

Livy, Zonaras, Ionnes Damascenes, Silius Italicus, and Aulus Gellius each give an account of a fascinated story on how Regulus defeated a 120-foot serpent that attacked his troops, defeated it with catapults, and sent the skin to Rome for display.  Therefore, it is not out of line for Robin Hobb to recount this event through the eyes of her characters, Regulus and Flavius.  In her story, Regulus disbelieves his scouts of such a lengthy creature, yet diverts his river crossing to avoid the beast.  The serpent still finds his forces, and injures his Italian neighbor, Flavius, when his own life is threatened.  Hobb, by giving her characters the ability to speculate and appear in awe of the beast, places us in the battle, and gives the reader a practical imitation of how a traumatizing event could be embellished by those involved.  W. W. Fowler, who wrote “Roman Essays and Interpretations” in 1920, thought that the serpent that Regulus fought had been a member of a nearly extinct species, whose length is nearly sixty feet, and that merely its length and the number of victims was embellished, but more so, he supposed an attack with equipment was plausible.  The account is the first such where a foreign beast is sent back to Rome, being the first Roman war fought outside of Italy, and this fact should hold some significance, even though many modern historians have attempted to discount the historical accounts of the battle.

The Triumph’s next account of a historically controversial topic is the portrayal of Regulus’ return to Rome. Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus, consul in 129 BCE, is reported by Aulus Gellius, as well as Dio Cassius, Appian, Cicero, Livy, and Zonaras, to have returned to Rome while a prisoner to engage in peace negotiations around the year 250 BCE.  He swore an oath to the Carthaginian senate that he would return from his parole if he could not sway the Roman senate to peace, or at least a trade of prisoners.  Once in Rome, he, instead, told his fellow senators to continue to wage war against Carthage.  Historians have discounted the accounts as fabrications, based in part because of the silence of Polybius.  John Toland, in his dissertation “The Fabulous Death of Atilius Regulus” of 1722, was the first to assert that Polybius’ silence proved the fiction of the account of his returning to Rome.  Later, he was supported by Louis De Beaufort in his “Dissertation sur l’incertitude des cinq premiers sicles de l’histoire romaine.”  Meanwhile, Tenney Frank found no reason to reject the accounts of the mission because of Polybius’ silence, despite Polybius’ relationship to Fabius Pictor and other Romans, and Polybius implies at one point his histories that more could be said on the subject.

Robin Hobb’s true topic in her story “The Triumph,” is the torture of Marcus Atilius Regulus, which opens and closes her feature in the book, Warriors.  She depicts Regulus as having his eyelids removed, and being hung in a spiked chamber over the gated entrance to the city of Carthage.  In the historical accounts, he died upon his return from Rome; however the way he died is debated among ancient historians.  Tubero, in an extract in Gellius, along with Dio and Zonaras, say the Carthaginians tortured Regulus by sewing his eyelids open, turning his face upward towards the sun.  One extract from Diodorus, preserved by Tzertes, indicates Regulus was tortured by having his eyelids cut off with a knife, and was then crushed to death by a maddened elephant.  While none of the extant fragments of Diodorus mention the peace mission to Rome, but only that Regulus’ wife was under the impression that he died from lack of care.  Tuditanus and Appian agreed that Regulus did in fact die from being kept awake for a long time.  Furthermore, Cicero accounted that Regulus died from cruel torture.  Diodorus Siculus, Tuditanus, Zonaras, Dio Cassius, and Polybius account that the Roman senate turned over two highborn Carthaginian captives that the family of Regulus tortured in retribution for the Marcus Atilius Regulus’ death.  The inability of the ancient historians to agree has made for deathofregulusthe topic to be a subject of debate among modern historians for its veracity as well.  In 1668, Palmerius published his “Exercitationes in Optimos fere Autures Graecos” endeavored to prove that the accounts of Regulus’ torture and death were fictional.  Palmerius claimed that Diodorus Siculus, being a Sicilian, would have better knowledge of Carthaginian interactions than a Roman, and thus his account was the correct one.  In addition, Palmerius interpreted Polybius’ silence on the story as an inability to trust the sincerity of both Philinus and Fabius’ accounts of Regulus’ death.  He then suggested that Polybius did not want to surpass the limits of historical certainty by recounting a popular Roman tale as truth, nor did he wish to incur Roman hatred by merely dismissing it as rumor.  Toland also attested that the torture of Regulus was a legend that was created by Regulus’ wife and children to keep themselves out of jail for such inhumane tortures of their Carthaginian prisoners.  He assesses his belief that the women of Rome fostered the myth to keep his wife within her rights.  Louis De Beaufort supported Palmerius’ opinion on the death of Marcus Atilius Regulus, attested that the contrasting accounts of Tuditanus, Tubero, Cicero, and Florus, coupled with the agreement of Appian and Silius about what proved the illegitimacy of the account.  A number of modern historians, however, have treated his story more favorably.  W. W. Fowler found the alleged savagery of the widow incredible and suggested that if the story of Regulus’ oath, his mission to Rome, and his heroic death was an invention, then it had as its purpose the illustration of Roman belief in the sanctity of oaths, and not the concealment of a barbaric crime.  Pais attempted to defend the validity of the accounts of Regulus’ torture, in his “I tormenti inflitti ad Attilio Regolo e l’autenticita della tradizione Romana.”  He found it difficult to reject an account of an event purported to have occurred in a period when roman historiography had seriously begun.  He also asserted that Diodorus’ statement that Regulus died of neglect was only proof to his wife that Regulus needed more attention, but not that he died of disease.  If Diodorus’ account that the government intervened to rescue Hasdrubal, it was only a sign that Roman society had begun to condemn excessive application of personal vendettas.  Moreover, by joining Diodorus account to Polybius’ selectivity, it gave credibility to the tradition.  Finally, Pias remarked that modern attitudes make it difficult to understand the character of Regulus, who would sacrifice his life for the greatness of Rome.

Robin Hobb’s “The Triumph” displays a strong knowledge of the ancient sources throughout her contribution to Warriors.  Her depiction of Regulus enables us to bear witness to a tragic account of a Roman consul as documented by ancient historians.  Her attempt to “imitate” the true historical accounts shows the reader how embellishments and judgments can leak into ancient historical accounts of Regulus’ life.  Modern historians discount the tale of Regulus because the character of Regulus is a display of a selfless stoicism that is lost in an anti-honor society, as documented in James Bowman’s Honor: A History.  Elizabethan playwrights were in awe of the ability to sacrifice oneself for their country, which served as the impetus of their portrayals of him to spawn a nationalistic movement among the youth of their societies.  Meanwhile, it opens Regulus to continued debate about his historiography, and serves as an example of T.S. Eliot’s argument that, “the past [is] altered by the by the present as much as the present is directed by the past.”  As long as we can look back on the past and attempt to deconstruct it, we will also be open to the rewriting and altering of history.  The story of Regulus is now treated as a myth in most history books, and modern literature, which displays his stoic death, is treated as an example of the motives that ancient historians encountered when they decided to embellish his accomplishments in order to serve as a example of Roman virtues.  “The Triumph” allows us to continue debate on the topic  and to continue to study how we receive classics today.

 

Warriors

 

For more, see my speech on the Historiography of Marcus Atilius Regulus from 2009’s 8th Annual Undergraduate Classics Conference at Miami University’s Marcum Conference Center, as well as my full Chronological Table of Sources.

Chronological Table of Sources of Marcus Atilius Regulus

This table is designed as a convenient guide to the primary texts upon which the foregoing study of Marcus Atilius Regulus has been based. Modern critical evaluations, both literary and historiographic, are reserved for the Bibliography.

Standard references have been maintained for the ancient sources. Subsequently, fairly fuller bibliographic descriptions have been provided to facilitate future consultation of works outside the classical collections. The table will have found its ultimate justification in its serviceability for further study of the Roman heroic exempla.

Author

Date

Reference

Polybius

Probably wrote Bk. I before 146 B.C.E.

i. 25-35.

Tuditanus

Consul 129 B.C.E.

See Gellius NA vii. 4. 1-4.

Tubero

Younger Contemporary of Cicero (46 B.C.E.).

See Gellius NA vii. 3. 1, 4. 2.

Cicero

Died 43 B.C.E.

Sest. 127.

   

Pis. 43.

   

Parad. ii. 16.

   

Nat. D. iii. 80, 82.

   

Fin. ii. 65; v. 82-83, 88.

   

Sen. 20.

   

Tuscul. V. 5. 14-16.

   

Att. xvi. 11. 4.

   

Off. i. 39; iii. 99-100, 108-111.

   

Phil. xi. 4.

Diodorus Siculus

Contemporary of Julius Caesar.

xxiii. 12-16; xxiv. 12. See Tzetzes Chil. iii. Lines 356-386.

Horace

Died 8 B.C.E.

Carm. i. 12; iii. 5.

Livy

Died 17 C.E.

xxviii. 41. 17-18; xxix. 28. 5; xxx. 30. 23; Per. xvii-xviii.

Trogus

Contemporary of Livy.

See Justinius.

Festus

Unknown, after 14 C.E.

De verb. sign. 12.

Seneca Rhetor

Wrote during the period 34-41 C.E.

Contr. v. 7

Valerius Maximus

Wrote during the reign of Tiberius.

i. 1. 14; 8. ext. 19; ii. 9. 8; iv. 4. 6; ix. 2. ext. 1; 6. ext. 1.

Seneca the Younger

Died 65 C.E.

Ben. v. 3

   

Dial. i. 3. 4, 9-11; ix. 16. 4; xii. 12. 5.

   

Ep. Mor. lxiii. 7; lxvii. 1-12; xcviii. 12.

Columella

Contemporary of Seneca the Younger.

Re Rust. i. 4. 2.

Pliny the Elder

Died 79 C.E.

Hist. Nat. xviii. 27.

Quintilian

Died about 100 C.E.

Inst. Orat. xii. 30.

Silius Italicus

Died about 101.

Pun. vi. lines 62-555

Frontius

Died about 104.

Strateg. ii. 10; iv. 3. 3.

Plutarch

Died after 120.

Mor. iv. Par. Graec. et Rom. 311C; xi. De Herod. Malig. 847 A.

Pomponius

Died after 121.

See Digesta.

Florus

Wrote during the reign of Hadrian.

Epit. 1. 20. 1; ii. 17-25.

Appian

Wrote about 160.

Lib. iii; Sic. ii.

Apuleius

Wrote during the period 155-161.

Apol. 18.

Polyaenus

Wrote about 161.

Strateg. viii. 12.

Gellius

Wrote during the reign of M. Aurelius.

NA vii. 3. 1; 4. 1-4.

Cassius Dio

Died about 235.

Frag. xi. ed. Henderson. (Cambridge, Mass. 2001).

Minucius Felix

Lived about 270.

Octavius xxvi. 91. PL III. col. 334.

Justinus

Lived in the 3rd Cent.

Epit. xli. 13. 3.

Tertullian

Died about 240.

Ad Nat. ii. 584ff. PL I. cols. 655ff.

   

Adv. Gent. 532ff. PL I. cols. 600ff.

   

Ad Mart. 625 ff. PL I. cols. 699 ff.

Cyprian

Died 258.

Idol. Vanit. 572. PL IV. col. 592.

Arnobius

Died about 320.

Adv. Gent. Vii. 43. PL V. col. 1281.

Lactantius

Died about 325.

Inst. Div. v. 12. PL VI. col. 592

[Aurelius Victor]

4th Cent.

Vir. Ill. 40.

Eutropius

Wrote about 364.

Breviarium ii. 17, 21, 25. MGH-AA II.

Paeanius

Lived about 380.

Metaphrasis Graeca Eutropii B. 21-24. MGH-AA II.

Ambrose

Died 397.

Ep. xviii. PL XVI. col. 1014.

Claudian

Died about 404.

Cons. Hon. lines 398-418.

   

Bel. Gild. i. lines 70-79.

   

Cons. Stil. i. lines 380-385.

Orosius

Wrote about 417-418.

Hist. Adv. Pag. iv. 8-10.

Augustine

Died 430.

De Civ. D. i. 15, 24; ii. 23; iii. 18; v. 18. PL XLI. cols. 28ff.

   

Contra Jul. 17, 26. PL XLV. cols. 745ff.

   

Ep. cxxv. PL XXXIII. col. 475.

Dracontius

Died about 450.

De Deo iii. lines 408-426 MGH-AA XIV.

Vegetius

Lived in the period 383-450.

Epit. Re Milit. iii. praef.

Boethius

Died 524.

Consol. ii. prosa 6.

Capito

Died about 527.

Versio Graeca Eutropii ii. 24. MGH-AA II.

Justinian

Published 533.

Dig. xlix. 15. 5.

Jordanes

Wrote about 551.

Romana. i. 20-21, MGH-AA V.

Johannes Antiochenus

Died about 649.

Transmission of Capito’s Eutropius.

Johannes Damascenus

Died about 756.

De Draconibus. PG XCIV. col. 1600-1601. (an excerpt from Dio xi.)

Paulus Diaconus

Wrote about 770.

Historia Miscella. MGH-AA II, 40-44.

Freculphus

Died about 880.

Chronicon i. 5. 2. PL CVI. cols. 1034-1035.

[Suidas]

Published about 976.

Lexicon s.v. ‘Ρήγουλος (1) LG I, iv. 290-291. (2) Excerpta Planudea 43. MGH-AA II, 45.

Aimoinus

Died 1008.

Vita Theodorici Regis i. 10. lines 25-39. MGH-SS Merov. II, 211.

Landolfus Sagax

Died about 1026.

Historia Miscella MGH-AA II, 240-242.

Ekkehardus Uraugiensis

Wrote about 1125.

Chronicon Universale. PL CLIV. cols. 610-611.

Zonaras

Died about 1130.

Epit. Dionis viii. 12-15. See Dio Cassius.

Guillaume de Conches [Hildebert of Tours]

Died 1154.

Moralis Philosophia i. 33. PL CLXXI. col. 1032.

Otto of Freising

Died 1158.

Chronica. MGH-SGUS XXV, 106-108.

John of Salisbury

Died 1180.

Policraticus vii. 557b. (Oxford, 1909), I, 313.

Johannes Tzetzes

Died about 1180.

Chil. iii. lines 356-374 ed. Kiessling (Leipzig, 1826). See Diodorus xxiii. Ed. Walton (Cambridge, Mass. 1957) XI, 108-110).

[Anon.]

Wrote about 1250.

Cronica Minor. MGH-SGUS XXIV, 526-527.

Vincent of Beauvais

Died 1264.

Speculum Historiale v. 35-36. reprint of Duaci, 1624 edition, 147.

Jacobus de Cessolis

Wrote about 1290.

Liber de Moribus Hominum et de Officiis Nobilium 2. 5. (Brandenburg, 1879).

[Matthew of Westminster]

Wrote about 1306.

Flores Historiarum I. xv. xliii. Rolls Series No. 95, I, 52-53.

Dante Alighieri

Died 1321.

Convivio iv. 5. 14. Opere di Dante, ed. Busnelli e Vandelli (Firenze, 1964) II, 2.

[Anon.]

Written about 1325?

Gesta Romanorum, 268, app. 72, 668-669.

Tolomeo da Lucca

Died about 1327.

Determinatio Compendiosa de Iurisdictione Imperii 21. (Hanover, 1909).

Engelbert of Admont

Died 1331.

Speculum Virtutum vi. 4, 7. Bibliotheca Ascetica (Ratisbonae, 1724), III.

Ranulph Higden

Died 1364.

Polychronicon. Rolls Series No. 41, IV, 40-44.

Francesco Petrarca

Died 1374.

De Officiis et Virtutibus Imperatoris, in Onosandri De Re Militari Commentariis (Noribergae, 1595), 136.

   

De Remediis Utriusque Fortunae i. dial. 21; ii. dial. 25. (Budae: Landerer, 1756).

   

Africa iii. lines 534, 626; vi. line 636; vii. line 318. ed. N. Festa (Firenze, 1926).

   

Epistolae Familiares iii. 10. 12; vi. 3. 40, 52; vii. 3. 7; x. i. 16; xi. 16. 22; xiii. 4. 12; xvi. 1. 1-2; 3. 3; xxii. 14. 57; xxiv. 8. 4. (Firenze, 1964)

Giovanni Boccaccio

Died 1375.

De Casibus Illustrium Vivorum v. (Parrhisiis, [1520?]), foll. xlviii-xlix.

Thomas Hoccleve

Wrote 1412.

Regement of Princes. Sec. 2. lines 2246-2296. EETS Extra Series 72.

Laurent de Premierfait

Died 1418.

Les Cas des nobles hommes et femmes. Morgan Library MS 342-343 (ca. 1475), II, foll. 4-7. This paraphrase of Boccaccio’s De Casibus was composed about 1409.

John Lydgate

Died about 1451.

Fall of Princes v. lines 424-804. EETS 122.

Roberto Valturio

Wrote at end of 15th cent.

De Re Militari ii; iii; v; vi (Paris, 1535). The first edition appeared in 1472 at Verona.

Jaun Luis Vives

Died 1540.

De Causis Corruptarum Artium vi. 2 in Opera Omnia (London, Gregg, 1964 reprint), VI.

Jehan de Beaubrueil

Published 1582.

Regulus, Tragedie… (Limones, 1582).

Michel E. de Montaigne

Died 1592.

Essais i. 52; ii. 3; iii.6. (Paris, Garnier, 1962).

[Jean Desmarts de Saint Sorlin]

Published 1671.

Regulus ou le vray genereus. Poeme heroique dedie a M. de Bartillat. (Paris, L. Rondet, 1671).

John Milton

Published 1671.

Paradise Regained ii. Lines 431-449. (New York, 2006).

Jacques Pradon

Published 1688.

Régulus, Tragedie, in Les Oeuvres de M. Pradon. (Paris, 1744).

John Crowne

Published 1692.

Regulus. in The Dramatic Works (New York, 1967).

Jacques Pradon

Performed 1711.

L’Attilio Regolo. Trans. G. Gigli. Tragedia del franzese rappresentata in Roma…nel Carnavale del 1711. (Sienna, 1711).

[?]

Performed 1719.

M. Attilio Regolo. Drama per musica da rapresentari…nel Carnovale dell’ anno 1719. (Roma, 1719).

Pietro Metastasio

Published 1740.

Attilio Regolo, in Opere di Pietro Metastasio. (Venezia, 1823)

William Havard

Published 1744.

Regulus. A Tragedy. (London, 1744).

[?]

Published about 1760.

Tragedia. Atilio Regulo. En dos actos … (Barcelona, [1760?])

Claude J. Dorat

Published 1766.

Régulus. Tragedie en trois acted et en vers. (Paris, 1766).

 

Published 1767.

Regulus. Ein Trauerspiel in drei Aufzügen und in prosa. Trans. Frederick Augustus, Prince of Brunswick-Oels. (Postdam, 1767).

Hannah More

Published 1774.

The Inflexible Captive. A Tragedy in The Complete Works of Hannah More, v. 1 (New York, 2006).

Heinrich J. von Collin

Published 1802.

Regulus. Ein Tragödie in fünf Aufzügen. Aachen, 1813.

Lucien E. Arnault

Published 1822.

Regulus. (Paris, 1822).

Joseph Lunn

Published 1823.

Amor Patriae. A Dramatic Poem. (London, 1823).

Jacob Jones

Published 1841.

Regulus. (London, 1841).

David Burns

Published 1842.

Regulus. A Tragedy in Plays and Fugitive Pieces (Hobart Town, Van Diemen’s Land; S.A. Tegg, 1842), I.

James Baldwin

Published 1896.

Fifty Stories Retold. (New York, 1896)

Russell S. Dynda

Published 1999.

Regulus. (Culver City, CA, 1999).

Robin Hobb

Published 2010.

The Triumph” Warriors. (New York, 2010)

Warriors